Cluster Definitions

Michael Porter, Professor, Harvard Business School defines clusters as “geographically proximate group of interconnected companies and associated institutions in a particular field, linked by commonalities and complementarities. The geographic scope of clusters ranges from a region, a state, or even a single city to span nearby or neighbouring countries.”

Traded industries are those that concentrate in particular regions but sell products across regions and countries (Delgado, Bryden, & Zyontz). Examples of traded industries include apparel, automotive, textiles etc. In principle they can be located anywhere. But similar traded industries tend to locate in nearby locations. And as they grow beyond the needs of the local market, they are more sophisticated and hence productive. Local industries are those that are dispersed throughout the nation. Their presence in a particular region is generally proportional to the region’s size as they primarily serve the local market (Delgado, Bryden, & Zyontz). Examples of local industries are real estate services, hospitals, etc.

Regional economies are profiled on the mix of clusters, traded clusters are formed by grouping traded industries and likewise, the groups of local industries form local clusters.




Cluster Code Cluster Name Cluster Code Cluster Name
1 Aerospace Vehicles and Defense 27 Lighting and Electrical Equipment
2 Agricultural Products, Inputs and Services 28 Livestock Processing
3 Apparel 29 Marketing, Design, and Publishing
4 Automotive 30 Medical Devices
5 Biopharmaceuticals 31 Metal Mining
6 Business Services 32 Metalworking Technology
7 Coal Mining 33 Music and Sound Recording
8 Communications Equipment and Services 34 Nonmetal Mining
9 Construction Products and Services 35 Oil and Gas Production and Transportation
10 Distribution and Electronic Commerce 36 Paper and Packaging
11 Downstream Chemical Products 37 Performing Arts
12 Downstream Metal Products 38 Plastics
13 Education and Knowledge Creation 39 Printing Services
14 Electric Power Generation and Transmission 40 Production Technology and Heavy Machinery
15 Environmental Services 41 Recreational and Small Electric Goods
16 Financial Services 42 Textile Manufacturing
17 Fishing and Fishing Products 43 Tobacco
18 Food Processing and Manufacturing 44 Trailers, Motor Homes, and Appliances
19 Footwear 45 Transportation and Logistics
20 Forestry 46 Upstream Chemical Products
21 Furniture 47 Upstream Metal Manufacturing
22 Hospitality and Tourism 48 Video Production and Distribution
23 Information Technology and Analytical Instruments 49 Vulcanized and Fired Materials
24 Insurance Services 50 Water Transportation
25 Jewelry and Precious Metals 51 Wood Products
26 Leather and Related Products




Cluster Code Cluster Name
101 Local Food and Beverage Processing and Distribution
102 Local Personal Services (Non-Medical)
103 Local Health Services
104 Local Utilities
105 Local Logistical Services
106 Local Household Goods and Services
107 Local Financial Services
108 Local Motor Vehicle Products and Services
109 Local Retailing of Clothing and General Merchandise
110 Local Entertainment and Media
111 Local Hospitality Establishments
112 Local Commercial Services
113 Local Education and Training
114 Local Community and Civic Organizations
115 Local Real Estate, Construction, and Development
116 Local Industrial Products and Services

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